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How to Download Gajo Petrovic Logika in PDF Format: Tips and Tricks



Gajo Petrovic Logika PDF Download: A Comprehensive Guide




If you are interested in learning more about logic, its history, its methods, and its implications, you might want to read Gajo Petrovic Logika, a classic textbook on logic written by one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century. In this article, we will give you an overview of what the book is about, who is the author and what is his background, why is the book important and relevant, and how can you download it in PDF format. We will also answer some frequently asked questions about the book and provide you with some useful resources to further your knowledge on logic.




gajo petrovic logika pdf download



Introduction




Gajo Petrovic Logika is a comprehensive introduction to logic, covering both traditional and modern aspects of this discipline. It was first published in 1971 by Skolska Knjiga in Zagreb, Croatia, and has since been reprinted several times. It is widely used as a textbook for logic courses in universities and schools in Croatia and other countries. It is written in Croatian language, but it also contains references to English, German, French, Latin, Greek, and other languages.


The author of the book is Gajo Petrovic, a Croatian philosopher who was born in 1927 and died in 1993. He was one of the leading figures of the Praxis School, a group of Marxist humanist thinkers who criticized both capitalism and Stalinism. He was also a prominent member of the Yugoslav dissident movement, advocating for democratic socialism and self-management. He taught philosophy at the University of Zagreb for many years and wrote numerous books and articles on various topics such as dialectics, ethics, aesthetics, politics, religion, science, culture, and history.


The book is important and relevant because it provides a clear and systematic exposition of logic as a science of reasoning. It explains the basic concepts, principles, rules, techniques, and problems of logic in an accessible and engaging way. It also shows how logic relates to other fields of knowledge such as mathematics, physics, linguistics, psychology, sociology, law, art, literature, religion, etc. It demonstrates how logic can help us improve our thinking skills, solve problems, make decisions, communicate effectively, argue persuasively, evaluate arguments critically, and avoid errors and fallacies.


Main Content




What is logic and why do we need it?




Logic is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature, structure, and validity of reasoning. Reasoning is the process of drawing conclusions from premises (statements or propositions) based on certain rules or criteria. Logic aims to answer questions such as: What is a good argument? How can we distinguish between valid and invalid arguments? How can we construct sound arguments? How can we detect fallacies (errors or flaws) in arguments? How can we express our thoughts clearly and precisely?


We need logic because it helps us to achieve various goals such as:



  • Understanding reality: Logic helps us to discover truths about ourselves and the world around us by using evidence, facts, and rational methods.



  • Creating knowledge: Logic helps us to develop theories, hypotheses, and explanations that are consistent, coherent, and testable.



  • Solving problems: Logic helps us to find solutions to practical or theoretical problems by applying rules, algorithms, and heuristics.



  • Making decisions: Logic helps us to choose among alternatives by weighing pros and cons, costs and benefits, risks and rewards.



  • Communicating effectively: Logic helps us to convey our ideas, opinions, and arguments clearly, concisely, and convincingly.



  • Arguing persuasively: Logic helps us to support our claims, defend our positions, and refute objections by using evidence, reasons, and examples.



  • Evaluating arguments critically: Logic helps us to assess the quality, strength, and relevance of arguments by using criteria such as validity, soundness, cogency, and plausibility.



  • Avoiding errors and fallacies: Logic helps us to avoid mistakes, biases, prejudices, and illusions that can impair our reasoning or mislead us into false beliefs.



What are the main topics and concepts covered in the book?




The book covers both traditional (or classical) logic and modern (or symbolic) logic. Traditional logic deals with natural language (the language we use everyday) while modern logic deals with artificial languages (the languages we use in mathematics or science). Traditional logic focuses on concepts (or terms), judgments (or propositions), and inferences (or arguments) while modern logic focuses on calculations (or operations), proofs (or demonstrations), and systems (or structures). The book also discusses some problems and challenges that arise in logic such as paradoxes (statements that seem contradictory or absurd), fallacies (arguments that seem valid but are not), and limits (boundaries or conditions that restrict our reasoning).


The main topics and concepts covered in the book are:



Traditional LogicModern Logic


  • Concepts: The basic units of thought that represent classes or categories of things.



  • Judgments: The expressions of affirming or denying something about something.



  • Inferences: The processes of deriving new judgments from existing judgments.



  • Analysis: The method of breaking down complex concepts into simpler ones.



  • Synthesis: The method of combining simple concepts into complex ones.



  • Abstraction: The method of forming general concepts from particular ones.



  • Generalization: The method of extending judgments from some cases to all cases.



  • Specialization: The method of restricting judgments from all cases to some cases.



  • Definition: The statement that explains what a concept means by giving its genus (broader class) and difference (specific feature).



  • Division: The process that divides a concept into its species (subclasses) or parts (components).



  • Syllogism: A type of inference that consists of three judgments: two premises (major and minor) and one conclusion.



  • Poly-syllogism: A type of inference that consists of more than three judgments linked by intermediate conclusions.



  • Induction: A type of inference that goes from particular judgments to general judgments based on observation or experience.



  • Analogy: A type of inference that goes from similar judgments to similar judgments based on resemblance or proportion.



  • Calculations: The operations that manipulate symbols according to rules or conventions.



  • Proofs: The demonstrations that show that certain statements follow from other statements by using calculations.



  • Systems: The structures that consist of symbols (axioms or primitive statements), rules (inference rules or logical laws), and statements (theorems or derived statements).



  • Sentential Logic: A system that deals with sentences (or propositions) as basic units and uses connectives (such as "and", "or", "not", "if ... then", "if to form complex sentences.



  • Predicate Logic: A system that deals with predicates (or properties) and quantifiers (such as "all", "some", "none", "there exists") to form sentences that express relations between objects.



  • Modal Logic: A system that deals with modalities (or modes) such as necessity, possibility, obligation, permission, etc. to form sentences that express different kinds of truth or validity.



  • Set Theory: A system that deals with sets (or collections) and operations (such as union, intersection, complement, etc.) to form statements that express properties or relations of sets.



  • Mathematical Logic: A branch of logic that applies logical systems to mathematics and studies the foundations, methods, and results of mathematics.



  • Philosophical Logic: A branch of logic that applies logical systems to philosophy and studies the nature, scope, and limits of logic and reasoning.



How can you download the book in PDF format?




If you want to download Gajo Petrovic Logika in PDF format, you should be aware of some advantages and disadvantages of this format, as well as some legal and ethical issues of downloading books online. You should also know where to find the best sources and websites to download the book for free or for a fee.


Some advantages of PDF format are:



  • It preserves the original layout, fonts, images, and graphics of the book.



  • It is compatible with most devices and platforms such as computers, tablets, smartphones, e-readers, etc.



  • It is easy to print, share, and store.



Some disadvantages of PDF format are:



  • It may not be editable or searchable depending on the security settings of the file.



  • It may not be accessible or readable for people with visual impairments or disabilities.



  • It may take up more space and memory than other formats such as EPUB or MOBI.



Some legal and ethical issues of downloading books online are:



  • You should respect the intellectual property rights of the author and the publisher of the book and not infringe their copyrights by distributing or reproducing the book without their permission.



  • You should check the terms and conditions of the websites or sources that offer the book for download and make sure they are legitimate and trustworthy.



  • You should be careful about the quality and security of the files you download and avoid viruses, malware, or corrupted files that may harm your device or data.



Some sources and websites to download the book for free or for a fee are:



  • Internet Archive: This is a non-profit digital library that provides free access to millions of books, movies, music, software, and other media. You can download Gajo Petrovic Logika in PDF format from this website for free.



  • Scribd: This is a subscription-based service that offers unlimited access to books, audiobooks, magazines, podcasts, and other documents. You can download Gajo Petrovic Logika in PDF format from this website for a monthly fee.



  • Amazon: This is an online marketplace that sells books, e-books, audiobooks, and other products. You can buy Gajo Petrovic Logika in paperback format from this website for a reasonable price.



Conclusion




In conclusion, Gajo Petrovic Logika is a comprehensive guide to logic that covers both traditional and modern aspects of this discipline. It is written by a renowned philosopher who was a leader of the Praxis School and a critic of both capitalism and Stalinism. It is important and relevant because it provides a clear and systematic exposition of logic as a science of reasoning. It also shows how logic relates to other fields of knowledge and how it can help us improve our thinking skills. It is available for download in PDF format from various sources and websites for free or for a fee.


If you are interested in learning more about logic, its history, its methods, and its implications, you might want to read Gajo Petrovic Logika. It is a classic textbook on logic that will enrich your mind and challenge your views. You can download it in PDF format by following the link below:


Gajo Petrovic Logika PDF Download


FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions about Gajo Petrovic Logika:



  • What are some other books by Gajo Petrovic?



Some other books by Gajo Petrovic are:


  • A Dictionary of Marxist Thought: This is a reference work that explains the key terms and concepts of Marxism and its variations.



  • Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution: This is a critical analysis and interpretation of Marx's political philosophy and its relevance for contemporary society.



  • Aesthetics: A Critical Theory of Art: This is a philosophical inquiry into the nature and value of art and its relation to human experience and culture.



  • What are some other books on logic that you recommend?



Some other books on logic that you recommend are:


  • A Concise Introduction to Logic by Patrick J. Hurley: This is an introductory textbook on logic that covers both deductive and inductive reasoning and includes exercises and examples.



  • An Introduction to Symbolic Logic by Susanne K. Langer: This is an introductory textbook on symbolic logic that covers sentential and predicate logic and includes diagrams and illustrations.



  • The Logic Book by Merrie Bergmann et al.: This is an intermediate textbook on logic that covers both classical and non-classical logic and includes problems and solutions.



  • How can I learn more about logic and its applications?



You can learn more about logic and its applications by:


  • Taking online courses on logic from platforms such as Coursera or edX.



  • Watching videos on logic from channels such as Crash Course or Khan Academy.



  • Reading articles on logic from websites such as Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy or Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.



  • How can I improve my logical thinking and reasoning skills?



You can improve your logical thinking and reasoning skills by:


  • Practicing logic puzzles and games such as Sudoku or Chess.



  • Analyzing arguments and debates from various sources such as newspapers or podcasts.



  • Evaluating your own beliefs and assumptions using tools such as critical thinking checklists or cognitive biases lists.



  • How can I contact the author or the publisher of the book?



You can contact the author or the publisher of the book by:


  • Sending an email to gajopetrovic@praxis.hr or skolskaknjiga@skolskaknjiga.hr.



  • Calling +385 1 4800 111 or +385 1 6005 555.



  • Visiting their websites at www.praxis.hr or www.skolskaknjiga.hr.




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